Threads and Event Processing¶
Internally Traffic Server is a cooperative multi-threaded environment. There are a fixed number of threads for core operations, determined at process start time. All core operations take place on one of these existing threads. Plugins may spawn additional threads but these are outside the scope of this document.
Traffic Server has a taxonomy of thread types which are layered to create the threading infrastructure. At the most basic are threads as the operating system provides. Classes provide additional data and operations on these threads to make them operate properly for Traffic Server.
Thread is the base class for thread operations. It contains a mutex and a
thread identifier. The logic for starting the thread at the system level is embedded in this class.
All threads started by Traffic Server have an instance of this class (or subclass). Plugins can directly start
their own threads via system calls and those are not tracked.
Thread sets up thread local
pthread_setspecific. Threads can be started via an explicit function provided to
Thread::start() or by subclassing
Thread and overriding
Thread also performs the basic time keeping for Traffic Server. The class contains a global static value which is treated as the current time for Traffic Server. Usually this class is accessed as a static but it can also be accessed in a way to update the current time. Because of the large number of threads the static use is generally sufficiently accurate because it contains the last time any thread updated.
EThread is a subclass of
Thread which provides support for Traffic Server core operations.
It is this class that provides support for using
Thread::execute() method to gain control after the underlying thread is started.
This method executes a single continuation at thread start. If the thread is :enumerator:
ThreadType::DEDICATED it returns after invoking the start continuation. No join is executed, the presumption is the start continuation will run until process termination. This mechanism is used because it is, from the Traffic Server point of view, the easiest to use because of the common support of continuations.
ThreadType::REGULAR thread will first execute its start continuation and then process its event queue until explicitly stopped after executing the start continuation.
Despite the name
EventProcessor is primarily a thread management class. It enables the
creation and management of thread groups which are then used by the Traffic Server core for different types of
computation. The set of groups is determined at run time via subsystems making calls to the
EventProcessor::register_event_type(). Threads managed by
EventProcessor have the
EThread start continuation controlled by
EventProcessor. Each thread group (event
type) has a list of continuations to run when a thread of that type starts. Continuations are added
to the list with
EventProcessor::schedule_spawn(). There are two variants of this method, one
for continuations and one for just a function. The latter creates a continuation to call the
function and then schedules that using the former. The
EventProcessor internal start
continuation for the
EThread executes the continuations on this list for the appropriate
thread group and then returns, after which
EThread::execute() loops on processing its event
In general if a subsystem in the Traffic Server core is setting up a thread group, it should use code of the form
int ET_GROUP; // global variable, where "GROUP" is replaced by the actual group / type name. int n_group_threads = 3; // Want 3 of these threads by default, possibly changed by configuration options. constexpr size_t GROUP_STACK_SIZE = DEFAULT_STACK_SIZE; // stack size for each thread. void Group_Thread_Init(EThread*); // function to perform per thread local initialization. ET_GROUP = eventProcessor::registerEventType("Group"); eventProcessor.schedule_spawn(&Group_Per_Thread_Init, ET_GROUP); eventProcessor.spawn_event_threads(ET_GROUP, n_group_threads, GROUP_STACK_SIZE);
Group_Thread_Init can be replaced with a continuation if that’s more
convenient. One advantage of a continuation is additional data (via cookie) can be provide
during thread initialization.
If there is no thread initialization needed, this can be compressed in to a single call
ET_GROUP = eventProcessor.spawn_event_threads("Group", n_group_threads, GROUP_STACK_SIZE);
This registers the group name and type, starts the threads, and returns the event type.
A thread classification value that represents the type of events the thread is expected to process.
The type of function invoked by
Thread::start(). It is a function returning
void*and taking no arguments.
Wrapper for system level thread.
start(const char *name, void *stack, size_t stacksize, ThreadFunction const &f)¶
Start the underlying thread. It is given the name name. If stack is
nullptrthen a stack is allocated for it of size stacksize. Once the thread is started, f is invoked in the context of the thread if non
nullptr, otherwise the method
Thread::execute()is called. The thread execution returns immediately after either of these, leaving a zombie thread. It is presumed both will execute until process termination.
A pure virtual method that must be overridden in a subclass.
- start(const char *name, void *stack, size_t stacksize, ThreadFunction const &f)¶
Event processing thread.
EventType registerEventType(const char *name)¶
Register an event type by name. This reserves an event type index which is returned as
Call the start continuation, if any. If a regular (not dedicated) thread, continuously process the event queue.
- EventType registerEventType(const char *name)¶
A thread which executes only the start continuation and then exits.
A thread which executes the start continuation and then processes its event queue.
- enumerator DEDICATED¶
A future computation. A continuation has a handler which is a class method with a specific signature. A continuation is invoked by calling its handler. A future computation can be referenced by an
Actioninstance. This is used primarily to allow the future work to be canceled.
class Event : public Action¶
EventType register_event_type(char const *name)¶
Register an event type with the name name. The unique type index is returned.
Event *schedule_spawn(Continuation *c, EventType ev_type, int event = EVENT_IMMEDIATE, void *cookie = nullptr)¶
EventProcessorstarts a thread of type ev_type, c will be called before any events are dispatched by the thread. The handler for c will be called with an event code of event and data pointer of cookie.
- EventType register_event_type(char const *name)¶