# Header Rewrite Plugin¶

This plugin allows you to modify arbitrary headers based on defined rules, for both requests and responses.

## Purpose¶

Remapping an incoming client request to an origin server is at the heart of what we use Traffic Server for, but often we need to do more to requests than just change their destination according to simple rewriting rules against the URL.

We may need to direct requests to different origins based on a client cookie.

Our origins might return error response codes which are a little too customized and we want to condense the possible values to just the official codes.

We might want to strip a set of internal-use or debugging related HTTP headers from responses before sending them to clients, unless the original request had its own special header indicating that they should be retained.

Or perhaps we want to redirect certain requests differently when they come from a known group of IP addresses (say, our developers’ office network) and we have a file on our proxy caching servers called /var/developertesting. (Stranger QA methods exist.)

Maybe we want to deny access to a resource with an HTTP 403 if the client connected to Traffic Server over a particular port, used HEAD instead of GET, doesn’t list Spanish (Paraguay dialect) in their Accept-Language header, and either the origin server replied with 304 or we randomly generate an integer between 0 and 500 and get back anything greater than 290.

These more complicated transformations of requests and responses (even that last one) are made possible by this plugin.

## Installation¶

This plugin is considered stable and is included with Traffic Server by default. There are no special steps necessary for its installation.

## Configuration¶

Header rewrite configurations, the actual conditions and operations that make up the activity performed by the plugin, are specified in external files and not in-line with the various mapping (and remapping) rules you may have configured for your proxy. The location of this file is arbitrary, as long as the Traffic Server processes have permissions to read it, though you may find it useful to keep it in the same location as your other proxy configuration files.

The paths given to the configuration file(s) may be absolute (leading with a / character), or they may be relative to the Traffic Server configuration directory.

There are two methods for enabling this plugin, based on whether you wish it to operate globally on every request that passes through your proxy, or only on some subset of the requests by enabling it only for specific mapping rules.

### Enabling Globally¶

This plugin may be enabled globally, so that the conditions and header rewriting rules are evaluated for every request made to your Traffic Server instance. This is done by adding the following line to your plugin.config:

header_rewrite.so config_file_1.conf config_file_2.conf ...


You may specify multiple configuration files. Their rules will be evaluated in the order the files are listed.

### Enabling Per-Mapping¶

Alternatively, the plugin can be enabled for specific mapping rules, by modifying the relevant entries in your remap.config:

map http://a http://b @plugin=header_rewrite.so @pparam=rules1.conf ...


As with the global method above, multiple configuration files may be listed, each with its own @pparam=<file> and their contents will be evaluated in the order the files were specified.

Each ruleset that is configured per-mapping should have a special Hook Conditions defined. Without a defined hook, these rulesets will use the REMAP_PSEUDO_HOOK.

## Rewriting Rules¶

Header rewriting rules consist of zero or more Conditions followed by one or more Operators. Conditions are used to limit the requests which will be affected by the operator(s). Additionally, both conditions and operators may have flags which modify their behavior.

A complete rule, consisting of two conditions and a single operator might look like the following:

cond %{STATUS} >399 [AND]
cond %{STATUS} <500
set-status 404


Which converts any 4xx HTTP status code from the origin server to a 404. A response from the origin with a status of 200 would be unaffected by this rule.

### Conditions¶

Conditions are used as qualifiers, causing the associated operators to only be evaluated if the condition(s) are met. Conditions all take the following form:

cond %{<condition name>[:<argument>]} <operand> [<flags>]


Every condition begins with the literal string cond to indicate that this line is a condition, not an operator. This is followed by the condition name, inside curly braces and preceded by a percent sign (e.g. %{TRUE} for the condition named TRUE). Some condition names take an argument. Header conditions, for example, take the name of the header in question, and cookie conditions take the name of the cookie. For these, the condition name is followed by a colon and the argument value (e.g. %{HEADER:User-Agent} for a header condition against the User-Agent header).

The operand of a condition provides a value, pattern, or range against which to match. The format is described in Condition Operands below.

Finally, a condition may optionally have various flags associated with it. These are described in Condition Flags below.

The following sections list all of the condition types currently supported. For increased clarity in their usage, the optional [<flags>] portion of the condition is omitted from all of the examples.

#### ACCESS¶

cond %{ACCESS:<path>}


Returns true if Traffic Server was able to successfully update the access time on the file at <path>. This condition will return false if the file does not exist or Traffic Server cannot access it for any other reason.

cond %{CLIENT-HEADER:<name>} <operand>


Value of the header <name> from the original client request (regardless of the hook context in which the rule is being evaluated). Note that some headers may appear in an HTTP message more than once. In these cases, the value of the header operated on by this condition will be a comma separated string of the values from every occurrence of the header. More details are provided in Repeated Headers below.

#### CLIENT-IP¶

cond %{CLIENT-IP} <operand>


Remote IP address, as a string, of the client connection for the current transaction.

#### CLIENT-URL¶

cond %{CLIENT-URL:<part>} <operand>


The URL of the original request. Regardless of the hook context in which the rule is evaluated, this condition will always operate on the original, unmapped URL supplied by the client. The <part> may be specified according to the options documented in URL Parts.

#### FROM-URL¶

cond %{FROM-URL:<part>} <operand>


In a remapping context, this condition matches against the source URL from which the remapping was generated. This condition is valid only within configurations provided through remap.config as described in Enabling Per-Mapping above.

The <part> allows the operand to match against just a component of the URL, as documented in URL Parts below.

#### GEO¶

cond %{GEO:<part>} <operand>


Perform a GeoIP lookup of the client-IP, using a 3rd party library and DB. Currently only the MaxMind GeoIP API is supported. The default is to do a Country lookup, but the following qualifiers are supported:

%{GEO:COUNTRY}      The country code (e.g. "US")
%{GEO:COUNTRY-ISO}  The country ISO code (e.g. 225)
%{GEO:ASN}          The AS number for the provider network (e.g. 7922)
%{GEO:ASN-NAME}     A descriptive string of the AS provider


These operators can be used both as conditionals, as well as values for setting headers. For example:

cond %{SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK} [AND]
cond %${GEO:COUNTRY} =US set-header ATS-Geo-Country %{GEO:COUNTRY} set-header ATS-Geo-Country-ISO %{GEO:COUNTRY-ISO} set-header ATS-Geo-ASN %{GEO:ASN} set-header ATS-Geo-ASN-NAME %{GEO:ASN-NAME}  #### ID¶ cond %{ID:REQUEST} >100  This condition provides access to three identifier values that ATS uses internally for things like logging and debugging. Since these are IDs, they are mostly useful as a value (operand) to other operators. The three types of IDs are %{ID:REQUEST} A unique, sequence number for the transaction %{ID:PROCESS} A UUID string, generated every time ATS restarts %{ID:UNIQUE} The combination of the previous two IDs Now, even though these are conditionals, their primary use are as value arguments to another operator. For example: set-header ATS-Req-UUID %{ID:UNIQUE}  #### INCOMING-PORT¶ cond %{INCOMING-PORT} <operand>  TCP port, as a decimal integer, on which the incoming client connection was made. #### INTERNAL-TRANSACTION¶ cond %{INTERNAL-TRANSACTION}  Returns true if the current transaction was internally-generated by Traffic Server (using TSHttpTxnIsInternal()). These transactions are not initiated by external client requests, but are triggered (often by plugins) entirely within the Traffic Server process. #### METHOD¶ cond %{METHOD} <operand>  The HTTP method (e.g. GET, HEAD, POST, and so on) used by the client for this transaction. #### NOW¶ cond %{NOW:<part>} <operand>  This is the current time, in the local timezone as set on the machine, typically GMC. Without any further qualifiers, this is the time in seconds since EPOCH aka Unix time. Qualifiers can be used to give various other values, such as year, month etc. %{NOW:YEAR} Current year (e.g. 2016) %{NOW:MONTH} Current month (0-11, 0 == January) %{NOW:DAY} Current day of the month (1-31) %{NOW:HOUR} Current hour (0-23, in the 24h system) %{NOW:MIN} Current minute (0-59} %{NOW:WEEKDAY} Current weekday (0-6, 0 == Sunday) %{NOW:YEARDAY} Current day of the year (0-365, 0 == Jan 1st)  #### PATH¶ cond %{PATH} <operand>  The path component of the transaction. This does NOT include the leading / that immediately follows the hostname and terminates prior to the ? signifying the beginning of query parameters (or the end of the URL, whichever occurs first). Refer to Requests vs. Responses for more information on determining the context in which the transaction’s URL is evaluated. This condition is deprecated as of ATS v7.1.x, please use e.g. %{URL:PATH} or %{CLIENT-URL:PATH} instead. #### QUERY¶ cond %{QUERY} <operand>  The query parameters, if any, of the transaction. Refer to Requests vs. Responses for more information on determining the context in which the transaction’s URL is evaluated. This condition is deprecated as of ATS v7.1.x, please use e.g. %{URL:QUERY} or %{CLIENT-URL:QUERY} instead. #### RANDOM¶ cond %{RANDOM:<n>} <operand>  Generates a random integer between 0 and <n>, inclusive. #### STATUS¶ cond %{STATUS} <operand>  Numeric HTTP status code of the response. #### TO-URL¶ cond %{TO-URL:<part>} <operand>  In a remapping context, this condition matches against the target URL to which the remapping is directed. This condition is valid only within configurations provided through remap.config as described in Enabling Per-Mapping above. The <part> allows the operand to match against just a component of the URL, as documented in URL Parts below. #### TRUE / FALSE¶ cond %{TRUE} cond %{FALSE}  These conditions always return a true value and a false value, respectively. The true condition is implicit in any rules which specify no conditions (only operators). #### TXN-COUNT¶ cond %{TXN-COUNT} <operand>  Returns the current HTTP client session, which permits detection of requests which are sharing a client session. Shared client sessions occur when multiple simultaneous requests are received for the same cache object. Instead of contacting the origin server separately for each of those client requests, one origin connection is used to fulfill all of the requests assigned to the shared client session. #### URL¶ cond %{URL:<part>} <operand>  The complete URL of the current transaction. This will automatically choose the most relevant URL depending upon the hook context in which the condition is being evaluated. Refer to Requests vs. Responses for more information on determining the context in which the transaction’s URL is evaluated. The <part> may be specified according to the options documented in URL Parts. ### Condition Operands¶ Operands provide the means to restrict the values, provided by a condition, which will lead to that condition evaluating as true. There are currently four types supported: Operand Description /regex/ Matches the condition’s provided value against the regular expression. <string Matches if the value from the condition is lexically less than string. >string Matches if the value from the condition is lexically greater than string. =string Matches if the value from the condition is lexically equal to string. The absence of an operand for conditions which accept them simply requires that a value exists (e.g. the content of the header is not an empty string) for the condition to be considered true. ### Condition Flags¶ The condition flags are optional, and you can combine more than one into a comma-separated list of flags. Note that whitespaces are not allowed inside the brackets: Flag Description AND Indicates that both the current condition and the next must be true. This is the default behavior for all conditions when no flags are provided. NOT Inverts the condition. OR Indicates that either the current condition or the next one must be true, as contrasted with the default behavior from [AND]. ### Operators¶ Operators are the part of your header rewriting rules which actually modify the header content of your requests and responses. They are always the final part of a rule, following any of the conditions which whittled down the requests and responses to which they will be applied. Multiple operators may be specified for a single rule, and they will be executed in the order listed. The end of the rule is marked either by the end of the configuration file or the next appearance of a condition (whichever occurs first). The following operators are available: #### add-header¶ add-header <name> <value>  Adds a new <name> header line with the contents <value>. Note that this operator can produce duplicate headers if one of <name> already exists, or your configuration supplies multiple instances of this operator in different rules which are all invoked. This is not an issue for headers which may safely be specified multiple times, such as Set-Cookie, but for headers which may only be specified once you may prefer to use set-header instead. The header’s <value> may be specified as a literal string, or it may take advantage of Variable Expansion to calculate a dynamic value for the header. #### counter¶ counter <name>  Increments an integer counter called <name> every time the rule is invoked. The counter is initialized at 0 if it does not already exist. The name you give your counter is arbitrary, though it is strongly advisable to avoid conflicts with existing Traffic Server statistics. This counter can be viewed at any time through the standard statistics APIs, including the Stats Over HTTP plugin. Counters can only increment by 1 each time this operator is invoked. There is no facility to increment by other amounts, nor is it possible to initialize the counter with any value other than 0. Additionally, the counter will reset whenever Traffic Server is restarted. #### no-op¶ no-op  This operator does nothing, takes no arguments, and has no side effects. #### rm-header¶ rm-header <name>  Removes the header <name>. #### set-config¶ set-config <name> <value>  Allows you to override the value of a Traffic Server configuration variable for the current connection. The variables specified by <name> must be overridable. For details on available Traffic Server configuration variables, consult the documentation for records.config. You can read more about overridable configuration variables in the developer’s documentation for TSHttpOverridableConfig. #### set-conn-dscp¶ set-conn-dscp <value>  When invoked, sets the client side DSCP value for the current transaction. The <value> should be specified as a decimal integer. #### set-debug¶ set-debug  When invoked, this operator enables the internal transaction debugging flag (via TSHttpTxnDebugSet()), which causes debug messages to be printed to the appropriate logs even when the debug tag has not been enabled. For additional information on Traffic Server debugging statements, refer to Debug Tags in the developer’s documentation. #### set-destination¶ set-destination <part> <value>  Modifies individual components of the remapped destination’s address. When changing the remapped destination, <part> should be used to indicate the component that is being modified (see URL Parts), and <value> will be used as its replacement. You must supply a non-zero length value, otherwise this operator will be an effective no-op (though a warning will be emitted to the logs if debugging is enabled). #### set-header¶ set-header <name> <value>  Replaces the value of header <name> with <value>, creating the header if necessary. The header’s <value> may be specified according to Header Values or take advantage of Variable Expansion to calculate a dynamic value for the header. #### set-redirect¶ set-redirect <code> <destination>  When invoked, sends a redirect response to the client, with HTTP status <code>, and a new location of <destination>. If the QSA flag is enabled, the original query string will be preserved and added to the new location automatically. This operator supports Variable Expansion for <destination>. #### set-status¶ set-status <code>  Modifies the HTTP status code used for the response. <code> must be a valid status code. This operator will also update the reason in the HTTP response, based on the code you have chosen. If you wish to override that with your own text, you will need to invoke the set-status-reason operator after this one. #### set-status-reason¶ set-status-reason <reason>  Modifies the HTTP response to use <reason> as the HTTP status reason, instead of the standard string (which depends on the HTTP status code used). #### set-timeout-out¶ set-timeout-out <type> <value>  Modifies the timeout values for the current transaction to <value> (specified in milliseconds). The <type> must be one of the following: active, inactive, connect, or dns. #### skip-remap¶ skip-remap <value>  When invoked, and when <value> is any of 1, true, or TRUE, this operator causes Traffic Server to abort further request remapping. Any other value and the operator will effectively be a no-op. ### Operator Flags¶ Operator flags are optional, are separated by commas when using more than one for a single operator, and must not contain whitespace inside the brackets. For example, an operator with the L flag would be written in this manner: set-destination HOST foo.bar.com [L]  The flags currently supported are: Flag Description L Last rule, do not continue. QSA Append the results of the rule to the query string. ### Variable Expansion¶ Only limited variable expansion is supported in add-header and set-header . Supported substitutions are currently: Variable Description %<proto> Protocol %<port> Port %<chi> Client IP %<cqhl> Client request length %<cqhm> Client HTTP method %<cque> Client effective URI %<cquup> Client unmapped URI path Variables to be expanded must be enclosed in double quotes ", as in this example using the arbitrary header Custom-Client-IP: set-header Custom-Client-IP "%<chi>"  ### Header Values¶ Setting a header with a value can take the following formats: • Any condition which extracts a value from the request. • $N, where 0 <= N <= 9, from matching groups in a regular expression.
• A string (which can contain the numbered matches from a regular expression as described above).
• Null.

Supplying no value for a header for certain operators can lead to an effective no-op. In particular, add-header and set-header will simply short-circuit if no value has been supplied for the named header.

### URL Parts¶

Some of the conditions and operators which use a request or response URL as their target allow for matching against specific components of the URL. For example, the CLIENT-URL condition can be used to test just against the query parameters by writing it as:

cond %{CLIENT-URL:QUERY} <operand>


The URL part names which may be used for these conditions and actions are:

Part Description
HOST Full hostname.
PATH URL substring beginning with (but not including) the first / after the hostname up to, but not including, the query string.
PORT Port number.
QUERY URL substring from the ?, signifying the beginning of the query parameters, until the end of the URL. Empty string if there were no quuery parameters.
SCHEME URL scheme in use (e.g. http and https).
URL The complete URL.

As another example, a remap rule might use the set-destination operator to change just the hostname via:

cond %{HEADER:X-Mobile} = "foo"
set-destination HOST foo.mobile.bar.com [L]


## Requests vs. Responses¶

Both HTTP requests and responses have headers, a good number of them with the same names. When writing a rule against, for example, the Connection or Via headers which are both valid in a request and a response, how can you tell which is which, and how do you indicate to Traffic Server that the condition is specifically and exclusively for a request header or just for a response header? And how do you ensure that a header rewrite occurs against a request before it is proxied?

### Hook Conditions¶

In addition to the conditions already described above, there are a set of special hook conditions. Only one of these conditions may be specified per ruleset, and they must be the first condition listed. Which hook condition is used determines the context in which the ruleset is evaluated, and whether the other conditions will default to operating on the client request headers or the origin response (or cache response) headers.

Hook conditions are written just like the other conditions, except that none of them take any operands:

cond %{<name>}


Because hook conditions must be the first condition in a ruleset, the use of one forces the beginning of a new ruleset.

Evaluates as soon as the client request has been read, but prior to any further processing (including contacting origin servers or fetching objects from cache). Conditions and operators which adapt to matching or manipulating request or response entities (e.g. headers) depending on their context will all operate on the request variants when using this hook, as there is no response data yet.

This hook is not available to remap rules.

For ruleset configurations provided via remap.config, this forces their evaluation as soon as the request has been read, but prior to the remapping. For all context-adapting conditions and operators, matching will occur against the request, as there is no response data available yet.

This hook is not available to remap rules.

#### REMAP_PSEUDO_HOOK¶

Similar to READ_REQUEST_HDR_HOOK, but only available when used in a remap context, evaluates prior to SEND_REQUEST_HDR_HOOK and allows the rewrite to evaluate as part of the remapping.

Because this hook is valid only within a remapping context, for configuration files shared by both the global plugin.config and individual remapping entries in remap.config, this hook condition will force the subsequent ruleset(s) to be valid only for remapped transactions.

#### SEND_REQUEST_HDR_HOOK¶

Forces evaluation of the ruleset just prior to contacting origin servers (or fetching the object from cache), but after any remapping may have occurred.

Rulesets evaluated within this context will process only once the origin server response (or cached response) has been read, but prior to Traffic Server sending that response to the client.

This is the default hook condition for all globally-configured rulesets.

#### SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK¶

Evaluates rulesets just prior to sending the client response, but after any cache updates may have been performed. This hook context provides a means to modify aspects of the response sent to a client, while still caching the original versions of those attributes delivered by the origin server.

### Affected Conditions¶

The following conditions are affected by the hook context in which they are evaluated and will adjust using request or response entities automatically:

### Affected Operators¶

The following operators are affected by the hook context in which they are evaluated and will adjust modifying request or response entities automatically:

## Caveats¶

Some headers may appear more than once in a request or a response. When this occurs, all values will be collapsed into a single comma-delimited string before the conditions see them. This avoids the problem of determining which header instance out of several a condition’s rule will be applied to, but it may introduce unexpected behavior in your operands.

For example, let us assume an origin response includes a header named X-Foo which specifies a keyword of some sort. This header may appear zero or more times and we wish to construct a HEADER condition that can handle this.

#### Condition A¶

This condition will match using a direct equality operand:

cond %{HEADER:X-Foo} =bar


#### Condition B¶

This condition will match using an unanchored regular expression:

cond %{HEADER:X-Foo} /bar/


Both conditions A and B will match this response:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 08 Feb 2016 18:11:30 GMT
Content-Length: 1234
Content-Type: text/html
X-Foo: bar


Only condition B will match this response:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 08 Feb 2016 18:11:30 GMT
Content-Length: 1234
Content-Type: text/html
X-Foo: bar
X-Foo: baz


That is because the HEADER condition will see the value of X-Foo as bar,baz. Condition B will still match this because the regular expression, being unanchored, finds the substring bar. But condition A fails, as it is expecting the value to be the exact string bar, nothing more and nothing less.

## Examples¶

### Remove Origin Authentication Headers¶

The following ruleset removes any authentication headers from the origin response before caching it or returning it to the client. This is accomplished by setting the hook context and then removing the cookie and basic authentication headers.:

cond %{READ_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK}


### Count Teapots¶

Maintains a counter statistic, which is incremented every time an origin server has decided to be funny by returning HTTP 418:

cond %{STATUS} =418


### Normalize Statuses¶

For client-facing purposes only (because we set the hook context to just prior to delivering the response back to the client, but after all processing and possible cache updates have occurred), replaces all 4xx HTTP status codes from the origin server with 404:

cond %{SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK}
cond %{STATUS} >399
cond %{STATUS} <500
set-status 404


### Remove Cache Control to Origins¶

Removes cache control related headers from requests before sending them to an origin server:

cond %{SEND_REQUEST_HDR_HOOK}


### Enable Debugging Per-Request¶

Turns on Traffic Server debugging statements for a transaction, but only when a special header is present in the client request:

cond %{READ_REQUEST_HDR_HOOK}
set-debug


### Remove Internal Headers¶

Removes special internal/development headers from origin responses, unless the client request included a special debug header:

cond %{CLIENT-HEADER:X-Debug} =keep [NOT]


### Return Original Method in Response Header¶

This rule copies the original HTTP method that was used by the client into a custom response header:

cond %{SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK}


### Useless Example From Purpose¶

Even that useless example from Purpose in the beginning of this document is possible to accomplish:

cond %{INCOMING-PORT} =8090
cond %{CLIENT-HEADER:Accept-Language} /es-py/ [NOT]
cond %{STATUS} =304 [OR]
cond %{RANDOM:500} >290
set-status 403


### Add Cache Control Headers Based on Origin Path¶

This rule adds cache control headers to CDN responses based matching the origin path. One provides a max age and the other provides a “no-cache” statement to two different file paths.:

cond %{SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK}
cond %{CLIENT-URL:PATH} /examplepath1/
cond %{SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK}
cond %{CLIENT-URL:PATH} /examplepath2\/examplepath3\/.*/


### Redirect when the Origin Server Times Out¶

This rule sends a 302 redirect to the client with the requested URI’s Path and Query string when the Origin server times out or the connection is refused:

cond %{SEND_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK}
cond %{STATUS} =502 [OR]
cond %{STATUS} =504
set-redirect 302 http://different_origin.example.com/%{CLIENT-URL:PATH} [QSA]


### Check for existence of a header¶

This rule will modify the Cache-Control header, but only if it is not already set to some value, and the status code is a 2xx:

cond %{READ_RESPONSE_HDR_HOOK} [AND]
cond %{HEADER:Cache-Control} ="" [AND]
cond %{STATUS} >199 [AND]
cond %{STATUS} <300
set-header Cache-Control "max-age=600, public"